Royal Caribbean Bond Prospectus

In case you wonder – is this flag of convenience thing real? Will investors really invest in a company in some obscure foreign jurisdiction? This is from the risks section of a 2001 bond offering by Royal Caribbean (which I think was about $1B or so):


We are a Liberian corporation and our selling shareholders are foreign corporations or partnerships. The selling shareholders and certain of our directors and controlling persons are residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and all or a substantial portion of their assets and a significant portion of our assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to serve process within the United States upon us or those persons or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in U.S. courts based upon civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States. We have been advised by the law firm of Watson, Farley & Williams (as to Liberian law), that, both in original actions and in actions for the enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, there is doubt as to whether civil liabilities based solely upon the U.S. federal securities laws are enforceable in Liberia.


Our corporate affairs are governed by our Restated Articles of Incorporation and By-laws and by the Business Corporation Act of Liberia. The provisions of the Business Corporation Act of Liberia resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the United States. However, while most states have a fairly well-developed body of case law interpreting their respective corporate statutes, there are very few judicial cases in Liberia interpreting the Business Corporation Act of Liberia. For example, the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under Liberian law are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in certain United States jurisdictions. Thus, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by the management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a United States jurisdiction.

The entire SEC prospectus


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